Glossary: Egypt

1973 Arab-Israeli War was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria.  The war came to an end with a ceasefire agreement signed October 25, 1973 after a massive resupply effort from the United States and the Soviet Union on behalf of their respective allies.

Camp David Accords are the peace accords forged in 1978 between Israel and Egypt.  Negotiated at the United States presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland, the agreement was officially signed on Mar. 26, 1979, in Washington, D.C. by then Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat, with U.S. President Jimmy Carter signing as a witness.  Under the accords, Egypt became the first Arab state to formally recognize Israel as a nation state and Israel agreed to the Sinai to Egypt.

Hosni Mubarak Egypt’s fourth president, Hosni Mubarak served in power for nearly three decades. Formerly, the Vice-President, Mubarak assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat.

Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna with the intention of restoring the Caliphate and instituting shariah (Islamic law) as a political system and a complete way of life.  It is Egypt’s oldest and largest Islamist organization, with its ideology based on the teachings of the Koran.

Sinai Peninsula is the easternmost part of Egypt between the Mediterranean and the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, both forks of the Red Sea.

Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.

Supreme Council of the Armed Forces was the governing body of 21 senior officers in the Egyptian military that took provisionary rule of Egypt following the fall of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.  The council governed Egypt from February 11, 2011 to July 30, 2012 when the newly elected President Mohamed Morsi came into power.

Tahrir Square is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt.  Often referred to as also known as “Martyr Square,” it became the site for the 2011 Egyptian Revolution that lead to the fall of then Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.